Archive | March, 2015

Historic Bus Location Data

27 Mar

Last night I was trying to think of interesting uses for a Rasberry Pi. One thing I came up with was a data logger. But what to log? Then I thought about a previous post on the Albuquerque Realtime Bus Data. Hmmm. What if I wanted to show the bus locations using a time slider. What if I want to see if they ever deviated from their routes, or if they deviated from their schedules? I can’t really do any analysis without the historic data, and the City does not give that out currently. So I think I find a use – logging Albuquerque Bus Data.

I don’t have a Rasberry Pi, yet, so I wrote a python script on my desktop to test the logger.

I am not going to post the code because I don’t know the impact on the Albuquerque server. I will give a brief explanation. The City has KML files for each bus route. Each route has multiple buses. I grabbed a single route – 766, and parsed the results. I initially sent the results to a csv – as you can see in the data below this post. Writing to CSV is not too helpful when the data gets large (I am not going to say BIG). Once I knew it worked, I sent the data to a MongoDB that was spatially indexed. In the database, I can now:

Get the total records


Get all the Records

                        for x in collection.find():
                                      print x

Get a specific bus number

                       for x in collection.find({‘number’:’6903′}):
                                           print x

Or find near a lat,lng

                       for x in collection.find({“loc”:{“$near”:[35.10341,-106.56711]}}).limit(3):

With a database, multiple people can query it and perform operations on it. Lastly, if the data gets larger, Mongo can be split (sharding) across multiple machines to hold it all.

My MongoDB records look like:

{u’loc’: [35.08156, -106.6287], u’nextstop’: u’Central @ Cornell scheduled at 3:45 PM’, u’number’: u’6903′, u’time’: u’3:46:52 PM’,
u’_id’: ObjectId(‘5515cfd814cd2829e4c1b718′), u’speed’: u’20.5 MPH’}

Here is the results of my original run. I ran the script for 7 minutes and got the following results for Route 766.


Hard to see, but displays bus locations along route 766 over a 7 minute period.


6409,0.0 MPH,1:34:02 PM,Central @ San Mateo (Rapid) scheduled at 1:31 PM,-106.58642,35.07778
6904,1.9 MPH,1:34:03 PM,Central @ Edith scheduled at 1:31 PM,-106.64776,35.08401
6411,0.0 MPH,1:33:56 PM,CUTC Bay B scheduled at 1:39 PM,-106.72266,35.07726
6407,21.7 MPH,1:34:00 PM,Central @ 1st (across from A.T.C.) scheduled at 1:34 PM,-106.64317,35.08359
6410,35.4 MPH,1:33:53 PM,Central @ San Mateo (Rapid) scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.58247,35.07749
6403,0.0 MPH,1:34:02 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.57089,35.10305
6903,29.8 MPH,1:33:56 PM,Central @ Atrisco scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.69049,35.08443
6409,0.0 MPH,1:35:14 PM,Louisiana @ Central (Rapid) scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.5852,35.07764
6904,1.9 MPH,1:35:14 PM,Central @ Edith scheduled at 1:31 PM,-106.6478,35.08413
6411,0.0 MPH,1:35:07 PM,Next stop is CUTC Bay B scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.72525,35.07886
6407,0.0 MPH,1:35:11 PM,Copper @ 2nd scheduled at 1:34 PM,-106.64784,35.08417
6410,19.3 MPH,1:35:17 PM,Central @ Carlisle (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.58734,35.07802
6403,0.0 MPH,1:35:14 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.57087,35.10306
6903,14.9 MPH,1:35:08 PM,Central @ Tingley (Rapid) scheduled at 1:38 PM,-106.68485,35.08576
6409,23.6 MPH,1:36:38 PM,Louisiana @ Central (Rapid) scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.58084,35.07723
6904,18.0 MPH,1:35:53 PM,Central @ Edith scheduled at 1:31 PM,-106.647,35.08373
6411,0.0 MPH,1:36:31 PM,Next stop is CUTC Bay B scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.72525,35.07885
6407,0.6 MPH,1:36:35 PM,Copper @ 5th scheduled at 1:35 PM,-106.64944,35.08541
6410,0.0 MPH,1:36:40 PM,Central @ Carlisle (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.59512,35.07883
6403,0.0 MPH,1:36:42 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.57086,35.10306
6903,31.7 MPH,1:36:33 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.67824,35.09252
6409,37.9 MPH,1:37:49 PM,Louisiana @ Central (Rapid) scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.57203,35.07627
6904,0.6 MPH,1:37:55 PM,Central @ Cedar (Rapid) scheduled at 1:33 PM,-106.63771,35.08276
6411,0.0 MPH,1:37:55 PM,Central @ Coors scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.72526,35.07885
6407,1.9 MPH,1:37:47 PM,Copper @ 5th scheduled at 1:35 PM,-106.6496,35.08487
6410,0.0 MPH,1:37:52 PM,Central @ Yale (UNM) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.60369,35.07979
6403,0.0 MPH,1:37:57 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.57087,35.10306
6903,0.0 MPH,1:37:56 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.67159,35.09515
6409,0.0 MPH,1:39:14 PM,Louisiana @ Central (Rapid) scheduled at 1:36 PM,-106.56872,35.07595
6904,18.0 MPH,1:38:19 PM,Central @ Cedar (Rapid) scheduled at 1:33 PM,-106.63713,35.08265
6411,0.0 MPH,1:39:19 PM,Central @ Coors scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.72527,35.07884
6407,3.1 MPH,1:39:10 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.65295,35.086
6410,31.1 MPH,1:39:16 PM,Central @ Yale (UNM) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.61167,35.08084
6403,5.6 MPH,1:39:23 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.5707,35.10368
6903,23.0 MPH,1:39:20 PM,Gold @ 5th (Rapid) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.67011,35.09438
6409,26.1 MPH,1:40:37 PM,Louisiana @ Lomas scheduled at 1:38 PM,-106.56848,35.07723
6904,24.9 MPH,1:40:10 PM,Central @ Cedar (Rapid) scheduled at 1:33 PM,-106.63585,35.08255
6411,0.0 MPH,1:40:31 PM,Central @ Coors scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.72526,35.07884
6407,23.0 MPH,1:40:36 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.65675,35.0863
6410,34.2 MPH,1:40:40 PM,Central @ Yale (UNM) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.61567,35.0811
6403,0.0 MPH,1:40:42 PM,Indian School @ Louisiana scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.56875,35.10221
6903,23.6 MPH,1:40:32 PM,Gold @ 5th (Rapid) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.66327,35.08892
6409,0.6 MPH,1:41:49 PM,Indian School @ Uptown Loop Road scheduled at 1:42 PM,-106.56849,35.08691
6904,24.9 MPH,1:41:55 PM,Central @ Cedar (Rapid) scheduled at 1:33 PM,-106.63585,35.08255
6411,0.0 MPH,1:41:55 PM,Central @ Coors scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.72526,35.07884
6407,0.0 MPH,1:41:58 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.65822,35.08648
6410,28.6 MPH,1:41:52 PM,Central @ Yale (UNM) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.6216,35.08113
6403,0.0 MPH,1:42:01 PM,Louisiana @ Lomas scheduled at 1:45 PM,-106.56779,35.10184
6903,23.0 MPH,1:41:55 PM,Gold @ 5th (Rapid) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.65819,35.08629
6409,41.0 MPH,1:43:13 PM,Indian School @ Uptown Loop Road scheduled at 1:42 PM,-106.56863,35.09282
6904,24.9 MPH,1:42:15 PM,Central @ Cedar (Rapid) scheduled at 1:33 PM,-106.6217,35.08093
6411,0.0 MPH,1:43:19 PM,Central @ Coors scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.72528,35.07883
6407,9.9 MPH,1:43:10 PM,Central @ Rio Grande (Rapid) scheduled at 1:40 PM,-106.661,35.08784
6410,34.2 MPH,1:43:16 PM,Central @ Mulberry (Rapid) scheduled at 1:47 PM,-106.62524,35.08125
6403,16.8 MPH,1:43:22 PM,Louisiana @ Lomas scheduled at 1:45 PM,-106.56635,35.10156
6903,19.3 MPH,1:43:19 PM,Gold @ 5th (Rapid) scheduled at 1:44 PM,-106.6549,35.084


Python Wrapper for Leaflet

20 Mar

I recently stumbled upon Folium – a python wrapper for leaflet. I was excited and it seemed to work well. I slowly ran in to problems and the pages loaded slow. I probably did something wrong on my end, but decided to write a simple wrapper on my own.

My wrapper is a python function for different Leaflet features such as map and marker. When you call each function, it writes a string to a file to generate the HTML. Below is my python code (

class l(object):

def __init__(self,path):
self.f.write(‘<html><head><title>Map From Python</title><link rel=”stylesheet” href=”; /></head><body><script src=””></script><div style=”height:900px; width:900px” id=”map”></div><script>\n’)

def map(self, lat,long,zoom):
self.f.write(“var map =‘map’, {center: [“+str(”,”+str(self.long)+”], zoom:”+str(self.zoom)+”});\n”)
def marker(self,lat,long, popup=””):
self.f.write(‘L.marker([‘+str(self.x) +’,’+str(self.y)+’]).bindPopup(“‘+str(self.popup)+'”).addTo(map);\n’)
def onclick():

def makeMap(self):

To use the code, follow the example below.

>>> from pyLeaflet import l
>>> L=l(“Paul.html”)
>>> L.marker(35,-106)
>>> L.marker(34,-106,”Hello from Python”)
>>> L.makeMap()

The output will be an HTML file called paul.html that displays a map with a maker.

Albuquerque Open Data

18 Mar

I have put together several posts on Albuquerque Open Data and have felt bad that the examples were not live. I shutdown my old website and tried to use JsBin for a few examples, but I was not consistent and couldn’t upload third party JavaScript files. Well, I found a solution.

GitHub Pages to the Rescue

I have a GitHub repo. A GitHub Repo is a place to put code where you can harness the full power of git – branching, committing and others can pull and push code to your repo. GitHub also has a thing called GitHub Pages where you can host sites. I have one. And I am now using it to host my presentations. I do not own Albuquerque Open Data, but the community does. The City puts the data out there for us to use. As a community member, I decided to create a GitHub repo for Albuquerque Data and a GitHub page for it. You can download the code for all the examples, or run them. You can also grab a copy and modify thm. Lastly, you can add your own code examples to the repo.

The Examples

There are only a few examples thus far.

  • Aerial – Zoom to a location in ABQ. Double click to get back an aerial image of the map window.
  • Crime – Click the map to see incidents near you.
  • Density
  • Elevation – Draw a line with lots of segments to see an elevation profile.
  • Game – Click the map to add a marker. Drag the marker to a park to win.

The Code for the Examples

You can get the code for each example by clicking the link.

  1. Aerial
  2. Crime
  3. Density
  4. Elevation
  5. Game

You can also grab the whole Repo as a ZIP file.

Aerial Imagery of Albuquerque and Surrounding Counties

10 Mar

When you need an aerial image, do you go to Google and take a screenshot? If you live in Albuquerque or the surrounding area, you no longer need to do that. The City of Albuquerque publishes aerial imagery of Albuquerque and the surrounding areas as open data. In this post, I will show you how to retrieve an image.

The Service

The Imagery Service provides a list of all the available years.

The historic data is a great addition.

The historic data is a great addition.

For this tutorial, click on Imagery/Aerials2014. At the bottom of the page, choose Export Image. You will see the full extent of the imagery and a form below.


To get an image, you need to enter the lower left and upper right corner coordinates of a bounding box in NAD83(HARN) / New Mexico Central (ftUS). I have no clue what this would be. You can change it to WGS84 (4326) as we have done in previous examples, but still, how would I know the coordinates without clicking on a map and checking the points? The form is pretty much useless to me. Our application will provide a better GUI – map based – to the form.

The Application

Our application will be a Leaflet.js map that allows the user to zoom to their desired location. The map window will be used to select what is exported from the imagery service.

The Logic

The application is a basic Leaflet.js map. We will add an onClick function that grabs the image.




The getImage() function will make an AJAX call to the service. It will pass the coordinates of the map window as parameters to get back an image in a popup. You can then right click and save image as…

function getImage(){

var bounds=b._southWest.lng+”,””,”+b._northEast.lng+”,”;

var url = “;;
var params=”f=json&bbox=”+bounds+“&bboxSR=4326&size=1028,1028&imageSR=4326”;

http=new XMLHttpRequest();“POST”, url, true);
http.setRequestHeader(“Content-type”, “application/x-www-form-urlencoded”);
http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes.
if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) {

result= JSON.parse(http.responseText);;




The above code starts by assigning the map bounds to a variable. We then create a bounds string in the format the service wants – lower left corner to top right corner. We pass the bounds string in to the parameters string and make the request.

The result contains an href property that is the URL to the image. We open a popup to the URL so the user can save the image.

Map on the left. Click. Image popup on the right.

Map on the left. Click. Image popup on the right.

Now the user can zoom to the desired extent and click the map to get back an image. Much easier than finding the coordinates and entering them in to the form.


Linq in JavaScript

4 Mar

If you are familiar with .NET, then you may know what Linq is: Language Integrated Query. It is a way to query databases or objects. If you have read my blog posts, you will notice that I like to iterate through JSON with if something equal something statements to filter and query my data. In this tutorial, I will show you how to use linq for JavaScript to make queries easier.

The Application

I am going to use Linq.js to process the results of a query to an ESRI REST endpoint.


Nothing much to see in the image above, just three points with their location type as a popup. It is the logic behind them that is useful. These three points were filtered out from a total of 844. I used the Albuquerque Public Art Data for this example.

The Logic

The map is a standard Leaflet.js map. I made a query to the Albuquerque Public Art endpoint using where set to 1=1. This gives back all the data. I know we can query here, but let’s assume that we are going to provide buttons for the user to filter data and we don’t want to keep querying the service. We grab once and can filter multiple times on any field.

The AJAX query is standard and returns our result.

var url=”;;
var params = ‘where=1=1&f=json&outFields=*&outSR=4326’;
var http;
http=new XMLHttpRequest();“POST”, url, true);
http.setRequestHeader(“Content-type”, “application/x-www-form-urlencoded”);
http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes.
if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) {

We can use linq.js after we convert the response to JSON.

var r = Enumerable.From(result.features)
.Where(function (x) { return x.attributes.OBJECTID > 202261 })
.OrderBy(function (x) { return x.attributes.LOCATION })
.Select(function (x) { return x.attributes.OBJECTID + ‘,’ + x.attributes.LOCATION +’,’+ x.geometry.x + ‘,’ + x.geometry.y })

The above code does several things.

First, we create the enumerable object from the JSON. When using ESRI JSON, you need to skip to the features or it will rarely parse. Next we select our where clause. The json has two properties that contain the rest (nested): attributes and geography. We take x from the function and then look for items with the attribute for OBJECTID greater then 202261. This gives me three results.

I then order the results by location – for no real reason other than to show it is possible. Then using select, I format the string that will be placed in the returned toArray(). The result is:

[“202263,Academy Hills Park,-106.52671900037603,35.149523000339606”, “202264,Alamosa Park,-106.70765700015008,35.07113600016852”, “202262,City/County Government Building,-106.65203299975377,35.088040999684026”]

Now I have a subset of my data. I can map it:


If you want to allow a user to play with some data, grab it all and use linq.js to filter, order and select subsets and only call the server once.

Reverse Geocoding a Line

3 Mar

In Geocoding with ABQ Open Data, I showed you how to geocode an address and how to reverse geocode a point when the user clicks on the map. Geocoding is an operation performed on points or addresses, so what do we do with lines? In this post I will show you how I am geocoding a line.

The Need

I have an application that allows a user to select a location for where they would like to perform some construction work and need a permit. The application started by allowing the user to specify a point or address. As I met with the users of the application, it turned out that having line features was crucial. Work may be performed along a stretch of road and the approvers of the permit wanted to be able to find at least the starting address when looking at the data in a tabular format – mostly for things like how many permits are on Central Ave.

The Solution

Alert box showing the start and end addresses of a line

Alert box showing the start and end addresses of a line

The solution uses the same reverse geocoding process as my previous post, but parses a line feature in to points. I am using the leaflet.draw plugin to allow the user to draw the line on a map. The draw plugin has a draw:created event that searches to see the type of object drawn. My code runs in the if (type == ‘polyline’) block.  The code below converts the layer drawn to GeoJSON and then the GeoJSON coordinates to a string split on the comma. Using the string at index 0 and 1, I have the starting point of the line. Using the index of length-1 and length-2 I can grab the last point. I use length because the user can draw a line segment with an unlimited number of points so I will not know where the line ends and do not want to assume a two point line. when I have the points, I call reverseGeocode().

var tojson=layer.toGeoJSON();
var x=String(tojson.geometry.coordinates).split(“,”);

//start point
var lt=parseFloat(x[1]);
var ln=parseFloat(x[0]);

var ltend=parseFloat(x[x.length-1]);
var lnend=parseFloat(x[x.length-2]);

The reverseGeocode function just makes an AJAX call to the ESRI REST API service for my geocoder passing the point and parsing the response.

function reverseGeocodeLineFrom(a,b){

var urlgeocode=”http://servername/ArcGIS/rest/services/wgs84locator/GeocodeServer/reverseGeocode&#8221;;

var geocodeparams = “location=”+a+”,”+b+”&distance=1000&f=json”;
var http;
http=new XMLHttpRequest();“POST”, urlgeocode, true);
http.setRequestHeader(“Content-type”, “application/x-www-form-urlencoded”);
http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes.
if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) {


Now I have a street address for the start and end of my line.

.NET WEB API: REST Endpoints with C#

2 Mar

I have posted here and here on using MVC 5 to edit a database with no code but as much as I like MVC 5, there are times that I just want a service and I will code up a front-end from scratch. This also allows anyone else in my organization to use the service as they wish as well. In this post, I will walk you through using the Web API to connect a database table as a REST Endpoint and allow you to view records, add a record, modify a record and delete a record.

The Steps

First, create a new ASP .NET Application



Choose WEB API


Right click on Models and ADD ADO.NET Entity.


Choose the first option.


Enter your database and connection properties. You can then pick the database you want to use.


Select the table or tables you would like to make available.


Build the project. If you do not build at this point, you will get errors in the next steps.


Right click on Controller and add a new scaffolding item.


Pick the Web API 2 controller using Entity Framework.


Select the Model (Name chosen when you brought in the table). Also pick the content class you used in the first steps. It is a drop down and if you pick the wrong one you will get an error. Just retry choosing a different one if you can’t remember what you named it.


Launch the application in Chrome and go to the URL for your controller. The default is http://localhost:xxxx/api/controllername. Notice I am getting XML returned. This is not what I want.


Under the application start folder, open the WebApiConfig.cs file. Add these two lines:

var appXmlType = config.Formatters.XmlFormatter.SupportedMediaTypes.FirstOrDefault(t => t.MediaType == “application/xml”);



Now browse to the URL again. JSON!


You can also add the primary key at the end of the url to get back a single record.


I will use the DHC Chrome plugin to show you how to make calls to the other endpoint not using GET. This is a fast way to test without having to write our front-end. POST to the URL and add Mr. T.

{“id”:5,”name”:”Mr. T”}

15In our application, we can see Mr T was added.


Let’s use PUT and edit Mr. T using his other name: B.A. Baracus.


It has been edited in our application.


Now let’s DELETE Mr. T.


He has been removed.


No code and we can view, add, edit and delete records in our database. Write a front-end using AJAX calls to each of the endpoints and pass a string representation of the object and you can do the same thing.

A note on posting to the endpoint.

Create a JavaScript object like Mr.T.

var mrT={“id”:5,”name”:”Mr. T”};

Now, to send it, you need to make it a string.


This will allow your application to work properly. I made the mistake of trying to use parameters in the URL and that was a no go.